Talanta. 2021 Oct 1;233:122602. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122602. Epub 2021 Jun 12.
A smartphone-based technique for determining the titration equivalence point from a linear-segment curve was developed for the first time. In this method, a titrant in an increasing microliter-volume was added to a set of sample aliquots containing an indicator covering both sides of the equivalence point. The solutions were subsequently photographed in one shot, in a dark box using a smartphone camera and an illuminating screen of a tablet or light emitting diode lamps arranged below a white acrylic sheet as a light source. After the colors of the solutions were delineated to Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) values, 1/log G was used to construct a plot in which the equivalence point was located at the intersection of the two lines in the region before and after the equivalence point. The technique was successfully applied to the miniaturized titration of sodium chloride injections, showing the good linear relationship of equivalence points to the sodium chloride concentration in the range of 0.4163-0.9675% w/v (R2 of 0.9998). The assay was accurate (% recovery of 98.92-100.52), precise (% relative standard deviation ≤ 1.20), and unaffected by the use of different types of microplates, smartphones, and RGB analysis tools. Additionally, it required no expensive nor complicated equipment and offered the possibility of performing analysis on a single smartphone device when it was used with a mobile application developed to aid data processing and immediate production of reports of analytical results.