Anal Chim Acta. 2021 Jul 25;1170:338630. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2021.338630. Epub 2021 May 19.
Smartphone-assisted point-of-care (POC) bioassay has brought a giant leap in personal healthcare system and environmental monitoring advancements. In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable colorimetric urea biosensor assisted by a smartphone. We employed hydrolysis of urea into NH3 by urease, which activates the reduction power of tannic acid, to generate silver nanoparticles for a dramatic colorimetric response. The proposed urea biosensor was validated in a solution to provide high selectivity against various interferents in human urine. It had high sensitivity, with a limit of detection as low as 0.0036 mM, and a high reliability of 99% ± 2.9% via the standard addition method. The urea biosensor was successfully implanted on a paper to facilitate smartphone-assisted POC readout with a limit of detection of 0.58 mM and wide detection range of 500 mM, whereby direct diagnosis of human urine without dilution was realized. Our smartphone-assisted POC colorimetric urea biosensor will pave the way for daily monitoring systems of renal and hepatic dysfunction diseases.