Sensors (Basel). 2021 May 19;21(10):3525. doi: 10.3390/s21103525.
The availability of simple, accurate, and affordable cuffless blood pressure (BP) devices has the potential to greatly increase the compliance with measurement recommendations and the utilization of BP measurements for BP telemonitoring. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between findings from routine BP measurements using a conventional sphygmomanometer with the results from a portable ECG monitor combined with photoplethysmography (PPG) for pulse wave registration in patients with arterial hypertension.
METHODS: The study included 500 patients aged 32-88 years (mean 64 ± 7.9 years). Mean values from three routine BP measurements by a sphygmomanometer with cuff were selected for comparison; within one minute after the last measurement, an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded for 3 min in the standard lead I using a smartphone-case based single-channel ECG monitor (CardioQVARK®-limited responsibility company “L-CARD”, Moscow, Russia) simultaneously with a PPG pulse wave recording. Using a combination of the heart signal with the PPG, levels of systolic and diastolic BP were determined based on machine learning using a previously developed and validated algorithm and were compared with sphygmomanometer results.
RESULTS: According to the Bland-Altman analysis, SD for systolic BP was 3.63, and bias was 0.32 for systolic BP. SD was 2.95 and bias was 0.61 for diastolic BP. The correlation between the results from the sphygmomanometer and the cuffless method was 0.89 (p = 0.001) for systolic and 0.87 (p = 0.002) for diastolic BP.
CONCLUSION: Blood pressure measurements on a smartphone-case without a cuff are encouraging. However, further research is needed to improve the accuracy and reliability of clinical use in the majority of patients.