Anal Chim Acta. 2021 Aug 8;1172:338684. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2021.338684. Epub 2021 May 24.
The design of a cheap, simple, and handy sensing system for rapid quantitation of pharmaceuticals becomes mandatory to ease drug development procedures, quality control, health care, etc. This work describes a simple, innovative, and easily manufactured paper-based device using a correction pen as a plotter for hydrophobic/lipophobic barriers and graphene quantum dots for recognition and quantification of the hemostatic drug carbazochrome, via fluorescence turn-off mechanism mediated by the inner filter effect. A smartphone-based all-in-one device fitted with an inexpensive 365 nm flashlight as a UV light source and a free image processing software was developed for rapid and reliable interpretation of the fluorescence change from the paper-based device upon introduction of the drug. The simple and convenient steps permit the analysis of many samples in a very short time. The smartphone-based all-in-one device featured excellent sensitivity for carbazochrome with a limit of detection equals to 12 ng/detection zone and good %recovery (100.0 ± 0.4). The reliability of the device was ascertained by favorable statistical comparison with the analogous optimized conventional fluorimetry method and a reference HPLC method. The device has been successfully applied for versatile quantitation of carbazochrome in tablets and on manufacturing equipment surfaces with excellent recoveries. The device offers many green aspects that definitely assist the implementation of the sustainability concept to analytical laboratories. The cost-efficiency, reliability, and ease of fabrication as well as the greenness and user friendship qualify the device for wide application in low-income communities.